Do the Benefits of Recess Transfer to the Classroom?
This month, our Educator Spotlight shines on Dr. Michael Hynes, superintendent of schools for the Port Washington School district in New York.
While educators across the country are intent on raising test scores and integrating technology, one superintendent is doing things a bit differently. In a quiet Long Island school district, somewhere between the Hamptons and New York City, Dr. Michael Hynes’ is focusing his attention on the benefits of recess.
A Day in the Life of a Third Grader
The genesis behind Dr. Hynes’ appreciation for recess came from his practice of “shadowing” his students.
“I will pick a third grader, fifth grader, or senior and follow their schedule for the whole day. And what that has allowed me to do is see what life is like for students now, compared to when I was teaching 20 years ago.”
On this particular day, he was shadowing a third grader. “When we went outside for recess, we’re about to play kickball. We divide the teams up — of course, I’m first, because I wanted to get the ball. And by the time the first pitch was coming out, the whistle blew to go inside.”
“I wanted to be outside! And just like cattle, we were all going inside, and the students all go ‘Oh, COME ON!’ The next week, I’m shadowing second grade. And it’s the same thing.”
“I’m like, this is actually torture. This isn’t a time for kids to relax. What I found was that in a 40 minute lunch/recess block, kids would either not eat lunch, or they would just wolf it down to get to recess. I was like, this is not working.”
“From that moment on, I said, ‘We are going to double this.’ I decided to make lunch and recess each 40 minutes. I spoke with a few of our principals and teachers, and they were willing to pilot and test drive it that same year.”
The Benefits of Recess
In bringing this change to the district, Dr. Hynes was thinking about more than kickball. “If you focus on the health and wellness of the kids, a natural by-product will be achievement. We focus on social, emotional and physical growth for our kids. When their basic needs are met, kids will score better on tests, but that’s not what gets us up in the morning.”
Over the past 20 years, Hynes has watched American schools start pushing students in a way that is unhealthy. “It’s stripping away our responsibility for their basic needs. We talk about the workforce and making sure we produce students who will be able to compete globally. Yet we learn very little from what schools are doing around the world.”
Hynes believes that it comes down to how we measure success in schools. “It’s about Maslow before Bloom.” Bloom’s taxonomy addresses the complexity of academic content. Maslow’s hierarchy identifies the needs of the individual. Maszlow’s central thesis was that social-emotional needs must be addressed before higher-order thinking.
“Children are in class feeling emotional ‘solar flares.’ If we don’t teach executive functioning skills, it’s going to interrupt their education. And that’s why the yoga, the mindfulness, the extra recess are so important.”
How He Knows it’s Working
Dr. Hynes identifies four benefits of recess that have transferred from the playground to the classroom.
“For the first time in the day, students choose what they want to do.” This increases student empowerment and their opinion of school as a whole.
2: Release of energy
“Students had been bottling up potential energy by sitting still all day.” When they get to move around, they release that energy and can better focus on learning.
“Students finally get to hang out with friends for a prolonged period of time.” These social interactions help improve school culture, and their propensity for collaborative learning.
“Students felt relaxed when they came back from recess. Previously, many students felt anxious or not in a good place.” This relaxation reduced behavior issues, making the classroom experience more pleasant for both students and teachers.
So after speaking to the teachers, he heard that students were more attentive. “The students were happy when they came back from recess. Over time, they were learning how to problem-solve and work out their own solutions. The faculty doesn’t want it to go back to the way it was.”
“So how do I know it’s working? If I removed double recess, I probably wouldn’t have a job anymore.”
The Academic Benefits of Recess
While many educators support social-emotional learning, it can be tough to strike a balance. Even advocates of SEL recognize the need for academic milestones and standards.
Dr. Hynes has found that time invested in recess produces clear academic benefits. “It doesn’t matter if you’re in a highfalutin school district or if you’re in an urban school district that is struggling for resources. If you put these changes in place, you’re going to get higher test scores.” He published a white paper explaining his approach and the research supporting it.
As for linking testing data to the initiative, that’s a bit more complicated. “The conundrum we have, because my community is so savvy, is that we have an 80% opt out rate. Meaning that 80% of our students in grades three through eight don’t take the state test. We have internal scores that we use that tell us it’s working, but they’re not standardized or normed state-wide.”
Hynes is unphased by the absence of test results. “Discipline referrals have been reduced in some schools by half. There has been an uptick in attendance because kids want to go to school now. So we do have measurable results, but we don’t have test scores per se.”
The Support of the Community
As passionate as Dr. Hynes is for double recess, it wasn’t a solo crusade. “When I came in to the Patchogue-Medford school district, I interviewed a cross-section of our community.” He spoke with 350 students, board trustees, teachers, administrators, parents, and vendors. “I asked three simple questions: What’s working well and why? What needs to be done to make our schools better? And what do I need to do in order to stick around?”
“I noticed people asking for the same things. They asked for students to want to come to school again. For change within the school that benefits students. They wanted to see less anxiety and kids who were not stressed out all the time. Well, now we’ve built a plan based on that feedback.”
“We have a five year strategic plan. It’s comprehensive, it’s rich in data, and it’s supported by major educational theories. Most importantly, it’s backed by a school budget that allows us to put the plan in place.”
“So we have seven elementary schools. In about a month and a half, we’ll have seven new playgrounds. That is a massive amount of money. But that is what the school community wanted for our kids. They saw how important it was for kids to be outside and to have the proper equipment to play on.”
“So the message is that this is what was asked for. We have about 90% of the community behind us. And we’ve had 45 schools from across the United States come visit our schools, because of what we’re trying to do.”
Sharing the Benefits of Recess
Dr. Hynes is happy to share what has worked in Patchogue-Medford with anyone who’ll listen. “Email me, and I’ll give you a road map. Seriously. I’ve spoken to every school board member, every superintendent who is looking to move in that direction. Because I think the process is just as important as whatever you’re trying to implement.”
“The doubling of recess is just one spoke in the wheel. You need to know the arena in which you’re playing and what your strategy is moving forward. Most schools and districts don’t have a vision or a mission. And if they do, most people don’t know what it is. They don’t know what their core values are. They don’t know where they want to be two, three, or four years from now.”
“You have to answer those questions first. You can’t just say, ‘I want to double recess, because it sounds like a good idea.’”
Creativity, Collaboration, and Conceptual Learning
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